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Nursing Management for Malignant Lymphoma

Lymphomas are a group of cancers in which cells of the lymphatic system become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably. Because there is lymph tissue in many parts of the body, lymphomas can start in almost any organ of the body.

The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma requires the presence of malignant lymphocytes in a biopsy of lymph node or extra-lymphatic tissue. An excisional lymph node biopsy is essential for complete diagnostic assessment. If a whole lymph node is not obtainable, sufficient incised tissue from an extra-lymphatic site can be diagnostic but is less desirable. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is not sufficient for the initial diagnosis of malignant lymphoma.

Malignant lymphoma is derived from lymphocytes. These tumors usually stems from lymph nodes, but can involve the lymphoid tissue in the spleen, gastrointestinal tract (eg, stomach wall), liver, or bone marrow. Lymphocytes in lymph nodes is also derived from multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. Multipotential stem cells in the early stages of transformation into a lymphocyte progenitor cells that subsequently differentiate along two parallel paths.

Partial maturation in the thymus gland to become T lymphocytes, and partly to the lymph nodes or remain in the bone marrow and differentiate into B lymphocytes cells
If there is an appropriate antigen stimulation by the T and B lymphocytes will be transformed into an active form and proliferating. Activated T lymphocytes functioning cellular immune response. Whereas B lymphocytes are then activated to imunoblas into plasma cells that form the immunoglobulins. Changes in normal lymphocytes into cell lymphoma is caused by a gene mutation on one of the cells of a group of old cell lymphocytes are in the process of transformation into imunoblas (the result of the stimulation of immunogen). This occurs in the lymph nodes, where lymphocytes are outside centrum old germinativum while imunoblast be the most central part germinativum centrum. If the tumor enlarges, it can cause and if not treated early it causes malignant lymphoma.

Cause of these tumors is unknown, but there are some risk factors include: immunodeficiency, infectious agents, environmental and occupational exposures (such as forest workers, farmers and agriculture), ultraviolet exposure, smoking, and eating foods high in animal fat. Signs and symptoms include fatigue, malaise weight loss, increased temperature, infection susceptibility, dysphagia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, anemia, edema arising anasarka, drop in blood pressure, shortness of breath when grown in the chest area and disorders / enlargement organ. If this condition is ongoing, it can cause complications of pleural effusion, bone fracture, paralysis and kematin certainly occur within 1 to 3 years if no treatment.

Nursing Management for Malignant Lymphoma

According to Brunner and Suddarth (2000), in providing care and client education. Clients often feel afraid to drugs that are radioactive and requires maintenance action and follow-up monitoring is special because it is the nurse should convey information about the therapeutic and soothing feelings of clients and families. For clients with postoperative laparotomy, clients are encouraged to rest and to avoid strain on the stitches. Gauze covering the wound should be reviewed periodically to determine the presence or not and do peradahan wound care according to the program every day, to observe signs of infection.

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