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Self-concept Disturbance : Low Self-esteem (Cause and Effect Mechanism)

Nursing Diagnosis Self-concept Disturbance : Low Self-esteem
Self-concept Disturbance : Low Self-esteem


Low self-esteem is a negative behavior towards self and abilities, expressed directly or indirectly. (Scultz and Videback, 1998).


Negative self-concept system

Signs and symptoms

There are 10 individual way of expressing direct low self esteem (Stuart and Sundeen, 1995)
  • Mocking and self-criticism.
  • Lowering or reduce the dignity of oneself.
  • The guilt or worry.
  • Physical manifestations: high blood pressure, psychosomatic, and substance abuse.
  • Delay and hesitation in taking decisions.
  • Disorders related, withdraw from social life.
  • Withdraw from reality.
  • Destructive self.
  • Damage or harm another person.
  • The hatred and rejection of self.

Cause and Effect Mechanism


1. Disturbed Body Image.

Body image disturbance is a change in the perception of the body caused by changes in the size, shape, structure, functions, limitations and meaning of objects in frequent contact with the body, usually the client can not accept his condition, feeling less than perfect then there will be low self esteem.

Signs and symptoms
  • Refuse to see, touch the body parts were changed.
  • Rejecting explanations body changes.
  • Negative perception of the body changes.
  • Reveals despair.
  • Reveals fear.

2. Ideal Self unrealistic

Definition: Ideal themselves are difficult to reach too high and unrealistic, ideal self murky and unclear, tend to be demanding. Failures experienced and fantasy that is too high can not be achieved frustrating and the resulting low self esteem.

Signs and symptoms
  • Feel themselves worthless.
  • Feelings of inadequacy.
  • Guilty feeling.
  • Perceived role strain.
  • Pessimistic view of life.
  • The rejection of the personal ability or inability to obtain a positive appreciation.


Social isolation: withdrawal

Definition: Withdraw an attempt to avoid interaction with others, avoid contact with other people. In addition to dance themselves an act of escape both the attention and interest of the immediate social environment (self-isolation) (Stuart and Sundeen, 1995).

Signs and symptoms
  • Apathy.
  • Sad facial expression.
  • Afek blunt.
  • Shy away from others.
  • Clients seem to separate themselves with others.
  • Less communication.
  • Less eye contact.
  • Silence.
  • Less mobility.
  • Disruption of sleep patterns (excessive sleep / lack of sleep).
  • Taking sleeping fetal position.
  • Physical health setbacks.
  • Less attention to self-care.

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