Search This Blog

Decreased Cardiac Output - NCP for Angina Pectoris


Nursing Care Plan for Angina Pectoris

Angina pectoris is a clinical syndrome characterized by paroxysmal episodes or pain or feeling of pressure in front of the chest. (Brunner and Suddart, 1997)

Angina usually occurs when exercise, severe emotional stress, or after a heavy meal. During these periods, the heart muscle demands more blood oxygen than the narrowed arteries can provide. Angina typically lasts from 1 to 15 minutes and is relieved by rest or by placing a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue. Nitroglycerin relaxes blood vessels and lowers blood pressure. Both rest and nitroglycerin reduce myocardial demand for oxygen, thus freeing angina.

Factors causing angina pectoris, among others:
  • Insufficient oxygen supply to the cells of the heart muscles compared needs.
  • When the move, especially heavy activity, increased cardiac workload. Pumping heart muscle stronger.
  • History of smoking (both active smokers and passive smokers)
  • Angina is caused by a decrease in blood flow to the heart area. Sometimes, other types of heart disease or uncontrolled hypertension can lead to angina.
  • Arteriosclerosis is a general term for several diseases, in which the arterial wall becomes thicker and less flexible which fatty materials collect under the inner lining of the artery wall.
  • Coronary artery spasm.
  • Severe anemia.
  • Arthritis.
  • Aortic insufficiency.

Nursing Diagnosis : Decreased Cardiac Output

Goal: An increase in cardiac output.

Outcomes:
Patients reported a reduction in episodes of dyspnea, angina and dysrhythmias showed increased activity tolerance, clients participating in behaviors or activities that lower cardiac work.

Interventions :

1. Monitor vital signs, eg heart rate, blood pressure.
R :/ tachycardia can occur due to pain, anxiety, hypoxemia, and decreased cardiac output. Changes in BP (hypertension or hypotension) due to cardiac response.

2. Evaluation of mental status, note the occurrence of confusion, disorientation.
R :/ Lowering the perfusion of the brain can result in changes in sensorium.

3. Note the presence of skin color and pulse quality.
R :/ decreased peripheral circulation when cardiac output falls, making the skin pale and gray (depending on the degree of hypoxia) and a decline in the strength of peripheral pulses.

4. Maintaining bed rest in a comfortable position during an acute episode.
R :/ Lowered oxygen consumption or decrease the need for labor and the risk of myocardial decompensation.

5. Give adequate rest periods. Assist in or perform self-care activities, as indicated.
R :/ saving energy, lowering cardiac work.

6. Monitor and record the effects or loss of drug response, blood pressure levels, heart rate and rhythm.
R :/ desired effect to decrease myocardial oxygen demand by decreasing ventricular stress. Drug with negative inotropic content can decrease perfusion to the ischemic myocardium. The combination nitras and beta-blockers may exert its effects on cardiac output collected.

7. Assess for signs and symptoms of CHF.
R :/ Angina only pathological symptoms caused by myocardial ischemia, a disease which affects the function of the heart became decompensated.

8 Give the drug as indicated: calcium channel blockers.
R :/ Although different in its form, calcium channel blockers play an important role in preventing and eliminating ischemia originator of coronary artery spasm and decrease vascular resistance, thus reducing BP and heart work.

Related Articles: